Many theories account to explain the actual causation of endometriosis. Two of the most significant ones are:
1. Retrograde Menstruation- This theory explains that during menstruation the blood along with some menstrual tissue flows back through the fallopian tube into the pelvic cavity. The endometrial tissue gets implanted there and endometriosis develops.
2. Theory of Genetic Transmission- The second theory indicates that endometriosis is a genetic process and is transmitted from one generation to the other in many families.
Other causes of endometriosis can be:
· Coelomic Metaplasia- The cells of the pelvic region have some cells that can develop into endometrial tissues causing endometriosis.
· Surgery-During episiotomy or a Caesarean Section, the endometrial tissues are transferred to other parts of the body.
Apart from the above two causative theories some important risk factors of endometriosis are enumerated below:
· Not producing children
· Hypomenorrhoea or short menstrual cycle lasting for less than 27 days and heavy bleeding lasting for eight or more days.
· Medical obstruction preventing outflow of blood
· Previous history of pelvic inflammation
· Previous family history (eg. aunts, mother, or sisters suffered the same problem).